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新航道gre培訓好不好?

作者: 2020-08-26 15:25 來源:沈陽編輯
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GRE閱讀論證分析中前提假設的識別與判斷


一、如何論證中的前提假設


GRE閱讀文章的本質是考察學生對于學術論文的理解能力以及批判性思考能力。所以考試中的文本全部選自于論證類學術文章。我們知道對于一篇嚴謹的論證類文章(Argument)包含結論(Conclusion)以及支撐它的論據(Premise)。除此之外,一篇論證中還存在假設(Assumption)即作者明確給出,并且為推斷出結論的必要條件。識別和評價這些假設對于一篇論證文章至關重要。下面我們用一篇閱讀文章和一篇邏輯題分別講解。


二、閱讀文本中對于假設的考察


In 1971, hot on the heels of plate-tectonic theory's acceptance, J. W. Morgan suggested that hotspots—areas of intense volcanism such as Hawaii, Yellowstone, and Iceland—are fueled by plumes of hot material arising in the deep mantle and punching through the mobile shallow mantle and crust to the surface. Morgan's theory was developed to explain the time-progressive trails of volcanoes associated with some hotspots and the hotspots' apparent fixity relative to one another. If the sources of the volcanism were rooted in the immobile deep mantle, they would not move relative to one another and the plates at the surface would drift above, bearing away trails of volcanism. According to a recent article by geologist G. R. Foulger, however, although hotspots do exist, they do not have time-progressive volcanic trails and are not fixed relative to one another.


本文開篇給出JW觀點認為hotspot是由plumes of hot material加熱的。第二句說這個理論解釋了火山的時間序列。第三句是論證的假設,即如果火山的扎根在不動的地幔中,那么他們將不會彼此關聯并且板塊也會漂移,使得火山飄走。第四句給出結論說盡管hotspot存在,但是不能解釋火山的時間序列。


Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?


A. It points out some unintended consequences of a theory.


B. It elucidates the thinking behind Morgan's suggestion.


C. It explains why the theory of plate tectonics had been accepted.


D. It expresses the author 's attitude toward Morgan's suggestion.


E. It introduces an alternative to Morgan's suggested explanation.


根據文章內容,黑題字為作者論證中的假設,而假設又是得出結論的必要條件,所以本題選B—解釋了觀點背后的想法。


三、邏輯題中對假設的考察


Springtown’s fire department wants the town council to buy it another ladder truck. These trucks are useful in fighting fires in high-rise buildings. The town council argues, however, that Springtown has only two high-rise buildings, and it already owns enough ladder trucks to fight any fires there. So, they say, Springtown does not need another ladder truck.


The town council's argument assumes that?


A. Springtown cannot afford to buy another ladder truck.


B. Springtown's high-rise buildings all meet or exceed current fire safety standards.


C. the number of high-rise buildings in Springtown is likely to grow.


D. at least one of Springtown's ladder trucks is not due to be permanently removed from service in the immediate future.


E. it is possible to fight fires successfully in high-rise buildings without using ladder trucks.


本文論證過程:


前提1:議會認為斯普林頓只有兩棟高層建筑;


前提2:消防局已經有足夠的車撲滅火災;


結論:不需要另一輛消防車。


本題正確答案為D選項:該選項取非之后為所有的消防車都退役了,所以需要買新車。這樣就使原文結論不成立。證明沒有該選項作為前提條件不能夠得出原文結論。


更多雅思、托福、sat、alevel、GRE、留學等相關信息請關注沈陽新航道學校官網:http://www.grbeih.com/。


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